Buddhism In A Nutshell - Chapter 1
On the fullmoon day of May, in the year 623 BC, there was born in the district of Nepal and Indian Prince named Siddhattha Gotama, who was destined to be the greatest religious teacher in the world. Brought up in the lap of luxury, receiving and education befitting a prince, he married and had a son.
His contemplative nature and boundless compassion did not permit him to enjoy the fleeting material pleasures of a royal household. He knew no woe, but he felt a deep pity for sorrowing humanity. Amidst comfort and prosperity, he realised the universality of sorrow. The palace, with all its wordly amusements, was no longer a congenial place for the compassionate prince. The time was ripe for him to depart. Realising the vanity of sensual enjoyments, in his twenty-ninth year, he renounced all wordly pleasures and donning the simple yellow garb of an ascetic, alone, penniless, wandered forth in search of Truth and Peace.
It was an unprecedented historic renunciation; for he renounced not in his old age but in the prime of manhood, not in poverty but in plenty. As it was the belief in the ancient days that no deliverance could be gained unless one leads a life of strict asceticism, he strenuously practised all forms of severe austerities. 'Adding vigil after vigil, and penance after penance," he made a superhuman effort for six long years.
His body was reduced to almost a skeleton. The more he tormented his body, the farther his goal receded from him. The painful, unsuccessful austerities which he strenuously practised proved absolutely futile. He was now fully convinced, through personal experience, of the utter futility of self-mortification which weakened his body and resulted in lassitude of spirit.
Benefiting by this invaluable experience of his, he finally decided to follow an independent course, avoiding the two extremes of self-indulgence and self-mortification. The former retards one's spiritual progress, and the latter weakens one's intellect. The new way which he himself discovered was the Middle Path, Majjhimã Patipadã, which subsequently became one of the salient characteristics of his teaching.
One happy morning, while he was deeply absorbed in meditation, unaided and unguided by any supernatural power and solely relying on his efforts and wisdom, he eradicated all defilements, purified himself, and, realising things as they truly are, attained Enlightenment (Buddhahood) at the age of 35. He was not born a Buddha (An Awakened or Enlightened One), but he became a Buddha by his own striving. As the perfect embodiment of all the virtues he preached, endowed with deep wisdom commensurate with his boundless compassion, he devoted the remainder of his precious life to serve humanity both by example and precept, dominated by no personal motive whatsoever.
After a very successful ministry of 45 long years the Buddha, as every other human being, succumbed to the inexorable law of change, and finally passed away in his 80th year, exhorting his disciples to regard his doctrine as their teacher.
The Buddha was a human being. As a man he was born, as a man he lived, and as a man his life came to an end. Though a human being, he became an extraordinary man (acchariya manussa), but he never arrogated to himself divinity. The Buddha laid stress on this important point and left no room whatever for anyone to fall into the error of thinking that he was an immortal divine being. Fortunately, there is no deification in the case of the Buddha. It should, however, be remarked that there was no Teacher, "ever so godless as the Buddha, yet none so god-like."
The Buddha is neither an incarnation of the Hindu God Vishnu, as is believed by some, nor is he a saviour who freely saves others by his personal salvation. The Buddha exhorts his disciples to depend on themselves for deliverance, for both purity and defilement depend on oneself. Clarifying his relationship with his followers and emphasising the importance of self-reliance and individual striving, the Buddha plainly states: "You should exert yourselves, the Tahthagatas (Lit., Thus who have come) are only teachers."
The Buddhas point out the path, and it is left for us to follow that path to obtain our purification. To depend on others for salvation is negative, but to depend on oneself is positive. Dependence on others means a surrender of one's effort.
In exhorting his disciples to be self-dependent the Buddha says in the Parinibbãna Sutta: "Be ye islands unto yourselves, be ye a refuge unto yourselves, seek not for refuge in others." These significant words are self-elevating. They reveal how vital is self-exertion to accomplish one's object and, how superficial and futile it is to seek redemption through benignant saviours and to crave for illusory happiness in an after-life through the propitiation of imaginary gods or by irresponsive prayers and meaningless sacrifices.
Furthermore, the Buddha does not claim the monopoly of Buddhahood which, as a matter of fact, is not the prerogative of any specially graced person. He reached the highest possible state of perfection any person could aspire to, and without the close-fist of a teacher he revealed the only straight path that leads thereto. According to the Teaching of the Buddha, anybody may aspire to that supreme state of perfection if he makes the necessary exertion. The Buddha does not condemn men by callind them wretched sinners but, on the contrary, he gladdens them by saying that they are pure in heart at conception. In his opinion the world is not wicked but is deluded by ignorance. Instead of disheartening his followers and reserving that exalted state only to himself he encourages and induces them to emulate him, for Buddhahood is latent in all. In one sense all are potential Buddhas.
One who aspires to become a Buddha is called a Bodhisatta which, literally, means a wisdom being. This Bodhisatta ideal is the most beautiful and the most refined course of life that has ever been presented to this egocentric world, for what is nobler than a life of service and purity.
As a man he attained Buddhahood and proclaimed to the world the latent inconceivable possibilities and the creative power of man. Instead of placing an unseen Almighty God over man who arbitrarily controls the destinies of mankind, and making him subservient to a supreme power, he raised the worth of mankind. It was he who taught that man can gain his deliverance and purification by his own exertion without depending on an external God or mediating priests. It was he who taught the egocentric world the noble ideal of selfless service. It was he who revolted against the degrading caste system and taught equality of mankind and gave equal opportunities for all to distinguish themselves in every walk of life.
He declared that the gates of success and prosperity were open to all in every condition of life, high or low, saint or criminal, who would care to turn a new leaf and aspire to perfection.
Irrespective of caste, colour or rank he established for both deserving men and women a democratically constituted celibate Order. He did not force his followers to be slaves either to his Teachings or to himself but granted complete freedom of thought.
He comforted the bereaved by his consoling words. He ministered to the sick that were deserted. He helped the poor that were neglected. He ennobled the lives of the deluded, purified the corrupted lives of criminals. He encouraged the feeble, united the divided, enlightened the ignorant, clarified the mystic, guided the benighted, elevated the base, dignified the noble. Both rich and poor, saints and criminals loved him alike. Despotic and righteous kings, famous and obscure and humble scholars, destitute paupers, downtrodden scavengers, wicked murderers, despised courtesans - all benefited by his words of wisdom and compassion.
His noble example was a source of inspiration to all. His serene and peaceful countenance was a soothing sight to the pious eyes. His message of Peace and Tolerance was welcomed by all with indescribable joy and was of eternal benefit to everyone who had the fortune to hear and practise it.
Wherever his teaching penetrated it left and indelible impression upon the character of the respective peoples. The cultural advancement of all the Buddhist nations was mainly due to his sublime Teachings. In fact, all Buddhist countries like Ceylon, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos, Nepal, Tibet, China, Mongolia, Korea, Japan, etc, grew up in the cradle of Buddhism. Though more than 2,500 years have elapsed since the passing away of this greatest Teacher, yet his unique personality exerts a great influence on all who come to know him.
His iron will, profound wisdom, universal love, boundless compassion, selfless service, historic renunciation, perfect purity, magnetic personality, exemplary methods employed to propogate the Teachings, and his final success - all these factors have compelled about one-fifth of the population of the world today to hail the Buddha as their supreme religious Teacher.
Paying a glowing tribute to the Buddha, Sri Radhakrishnan states: "In Gautama the Buddha we have a mastermind from the East second to none so far as the influence on the thought and life of the human race is concerned, and sacred to all as the founder of a religious tradition whose hold is hardly less wide and deep than any other. He belongs to the history of the world's thought, to the general inheritance of all cultivated men, for, judged by intellectual intregrity, moral earnestness, and spiritual insight, he is undoubtedly one of the greatest figures in history."
In The Three Greatest Men in History H. G. Wells writes: "In the Buddha you see clearly a man, simple, devout - lonely, battling for light - a vivid human personality, not a myth. He too gave a message to mankind universal in character. Many of our best modern ideas are in closest harmony with it. All the miseries and discontents are due, he taught, to selfishness. Before a man can become serene he must cease to live for his senses or himself. Then he emerges into a great being. Buddha in different language called men to self-forgetfulness 500 years before Christ. In some ways he is nearer to us and our needs. He was more lucid upon our individual importance and service than Christ and less ambiguous upon the question of personal immortality."
St. Hilaire remarks: "The perfect model of all the virtues he preaches ... his life has not a stain upon it." Fausboll says: "The more I know him, the more I love him." A humble fellow of his would say: "The more I know him, the more I love him; the more I love him, the more I know him."
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Images of Thailand